Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses

Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses

This chapter presents the results of the data analysis and test of hypotheses. On the whole, two hundred and twenty-five (225) copies of the questionnaire were distributed.

This research is organized and released as follow:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Academic Development of Students

Chapter 2: Review of the Effects of Marital Conflict on Academic Development of Students

Chapter 3: Methodology, population & Sample

Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses

Chapter 5: Conclusion & Recommendations

4.1     Data Presentation

This chapter presents the results of the data analysis. On the whole, two hundred and twenty-five (225) copies of the questionnaire were distributed. One hundred and eighty-five (185) copies of the questionnaire were completed and returned by the teachers. This gave a percentage return of 82.2% as shown in the table below.

Table 4.1.1     Total Number of Questionnaires Distributed and Percentage Returned

No. DistributedNo. Returned% Returned
22518582.2%

The returned questionnaire consists of 90 male and 95 female respondents. These questionnaires provided data for analysis. The respondents’ responses were tallied showing frequency distributions, means, and pooled means. The presentation of results is done below on the research questions posed.

4.2     Research Question One

Do marital conflicts have effects on the academic development of students in church-administered S.S.S in the Umuahia education zone?

Table 4.2a below gives the summary of the male responses on the effects of marital conflicts on the academic performance of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) in the Umuahia education zone while table 4.2b gives the summary of female responses.

Table 4.2a: Mean Rating of Male Teacher’s Responses on Effects of Marital Conflict on Academic Development of Students
Item No.StatementSAADSDSX(Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 1)DecisionPooled Mean
AIt has effects on cognitive development of students2483012123023.36Positive3.14
BIt has effects on affective development of students20011210212733.03Positive
CIt has effects on psychomotor development of students1686330122733.03Positive

Test of Hypotheses

Decision Rule: The mean of 2.50 and above is considered positive and below 2.50 negative. The table above shows acceptance that marital conflict affects cognitive (3.36), affective (3.03), and psychomotor (3.03) developments of students.

Table 4.2b: Mean Rating of Female Teacher’s Responses on Effects of Marital Conflict on Academic Development of Students
Item No.StatementSAADSDSX(Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 1)DecisionPooled Mean
AIt has effects on cognitive development of students204961263183.38Positive3.30
BIt has effects on affective development of students2127612103103.26Positive
CIt has effects on psychomotor development of students2087814103103.26Positive

Test of Hypotheses

Decision Rule: The mean of 2.50 and above is considered positive while the mean below 2.50 is considered negative.

Tables 4.2a and 4.2b above show that all the items and their pooled mean are positive, it is therefore concluded that male and female teachers agree that marital conflict affects the academic development of students in Church-administered Senior Secondary Schools. Table 4.2c below shows the summary of the mean ratings of the male and female teachers on marital conflict and academic development.

Table 4.2c: Summary of Male and Female Teachers’ Mean Ratings

  Male TeachersFemale Teachers
Item No.StatementsMeanDecisionMeanDecision
AIt has effects on the cognitive development of students3.36Positive3.38Positive
BIt has effects on affective development of students3.03Positive3.26Positive
CIt has effects on the psychomotor development of students3.03Positive3.26Positive
 Total9.42 9.90 
 Pooled Mean3.14Positive3.30Positive

4.3     Research Question Two

Do marital conflicts have effects on the psychomotor development of students in church-administered S.S.S. in Umuahia education zone?

Table 4.3a below gives the summary of the male responses on the effects of marital conflicts on psychomotor development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) in the Umuahia education zone while table 4.3b gives the summary of female responses.

Table 4.3a: Mean Rating of Male Teacher’s Responses on Effects of Marital Conflict on Psychomotor Development of Students
Item No.StatementSAADSDSX(Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 1)DecisionPooled Mean
AIt leads to poor attendance to lectures1208420122362.62Positive3.07
BIt leads to student mobility and referrals for behavioral problems2004510202753.06Positive
CIt leads to suspension from school as affected students show behavioral problems180902052953.28Positive
DIt leads to unwillingness to experiment with new concepts188931453003.33Positive
Table 4.3b: Mean Rating of Female Teacher’s Responses on Effects of Marital Conflict on Psychomotor Development of Students
Item No.StatementSAADSDSX(Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 1)DecisionPooled Mean
AIt leads to poor attendance to lectures1401173062933.08Positive3.19
BIt leads to student mobility and referrals for behavioral problems1601172063033.19Positive
CIt leads to suspension from school as affected students show behavioral problems1641201853073.23Positive
DIt leads to unwillingness to experiment with new concepts1681201653093.25Positive

Test of Hypotheses

Decision Rule: The mean of 2.50 and above is considered positive while the mean below 2.50 is considered negative.

Tables 4.3a and 4.3b above show that all the items and their pooled mean are positive, it is therefore concluded that male and female teachers agree that marital conflict affects the psychomotor development of students in Church-administered Senior Secondary Schools. It leads to poor attendance to lectures, students’ mobility, and referrals for behavioral problems, suspension from school, and unwillingness to experiment with new concepts. Table 4.3c below shows the summary of the mean ratings of the male and female teachers on marital conflict and psychomotor development.

Table 4.3c: Summary of Male and Female Teachers’ Mean Ratings

  Male TeachersFemale Teachers
Item No.StatementsMeanDecisionMeanDecision
AIt leads to poor attendance at lectures2.62Positive3.08Positive
BIt leads to student mobility and referrals for behavioral problems3.06Positive3.19Positive
CIt leads to suspension from school as affected students show behavioral problems3.28Positive3.23Positive
DIt leads to an unwillingness to experiment with new concepts3.33Positive3.25Positive
 Total12.29 12.75 
 Pooled Mean3.07Positive3.19Positive

4.4     Research Question Three

Do marital conflicts have effects on the cognitive development of students in church-administered S.S.S. in Umuahia education zone?

Table 4.4a below gives the summary of the male responses on the effects of marital conflicts on the cognitive development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) in the Umuahia education zone while table 4.4b gives the summary of female responses.

Table 4.3.1: Mean Rating of Male Teacher’s Responses on Effects of Marital Conflict on Cognitive Development of Students
Item No.StatementSAADSDSX(Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 1)DecisionPooled Mean
AIt leads to various learning difficulties156903092853.17Positive3.11
BIt imposes temporal interruption in the learning process172991472923.24Positive
CIt leads to a lack of learning materials as such parents suffer from insufficient income14410816102783.09Positive
DIt affects the students’ class participation14010520102753.06Positive
EIt affects the students’ long-term academic achievement13611118102753.06Positive
FIt leads to examination malpractices13211118112723.02Positive
Table 4.4b: Mean Rating of Female Teacher’s Responses on Effects of Marital Conflict on Cognitive Development of Students
Item No.StatementSAADSDSX(Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 1)DecisionPooled Mean
AIt leads to various learning difficulties1169330202592.73Positive3.03
BIt imposes temporal interruption in the learning process14410820132853.00Positive
CIt leads to a lack of learning materials as such parents suffer from insufficient income1521202072993.18Positive
DIt affects the students’ class participation2006030103003.16Positive
EIt affects the students’ long-term academic achievement1161353252883.03Positive
FIt leads to examination malpractices1609030102903.05Positive

Test of Hypotheses

Decision Rule: The mean of 2.50 and above is considered positive while the mean below 2.50 is considered negative.

Tables 4.4a and 4.4b above show that all the items and their pooled mean are positive, it is therefore concluded that male and female teachers agree that marital conflict affects the cognitive development of students in Church-administered Senior Secondary Schools. It leads to various learning difficulties, imposes temporal interruption in the learning process, lack of resource materials, class participation, long-term achievement, and exam malpractices. Table 4.4c below shows the summary of the mean ratings of the male and female teachers on marital conflict and psychomotor development.

Table 4.4c: Summary of Male and Female Teachers’ Mean Ratings

  Male TeachersFemale Teachers
Item No.StatementsMeanDecisionMeanDecision
AIt leads to various learning difficulties3.17Positive2.73Positive
BIt imposes temporal interruption in the learning process3.24Positive3.00Positive
CIt leads to a lack of learning materials as such parents suffer from insufficient income3.09Positive3.18Positive
DIt affects the students’ class participation3.06Positive3.16Positive
EIt affects the students’ long-term academic achievement3.06Positive3.03Positive
FIt leads to examination malpractices3.02Positive3.05Positive
 Total18.64 18.15 
 Pooled Mean3.11Positive3.03Positive

4.5     Research Question Four

Do marital conflicts have effects on the affective development of students in church-administered S.S.S. in Umuahia education zone?

Table 4.5a below gives the summary of the male responses on effects of marital conflicts on affective development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) in the Umuahia education zone while table 4.5b gives the summary of female responses.

Table 4.5a: Mean Rating of Male Teacher’s Responses on Effects of Marital Conflict on Affective Development of Students
Item No.StatementSAADSDSX(Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 1)DecisionPooled Mean
AIt results to poor socio-emotional development which affects academic performance200991033123.47Positive3.26
BIt leads to students’ anxieties which affect academic performance1886620112853.17Positive
CIt results to students’ loneliness which affects academic performance1846920112853.16Positive
DIt leads to students’ depression and stress which affects academic performance196662092913.23Positive
Table 4.5b: Mean Rating of Female Teacher’s Responses on Effects of Marital Conflict on Affective Development of Students
Item No.StatementSAADSDSX(Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 1)DecisionPooled Mean
AIt results to poor socio-emotional development which affects academic performance2001051053203.37Positive3.33
BIt leads to students’ anxieties which affect academic performance2041021053213.38Positive
CIt results to students’ loneliness which affects academic performance196991653163.33Positive
DIt leads to students’ depression and stress which affects academic performance1929312103073.23Positive

Test of Hypotheses

Decision Rule: The mean of 2.50 and above is considered positive while the mean below 2.50 is considered negative.

Tables 4.5a and 4.5b above show that all the items and their pooled mean are positive, it is therefore concluded that male and female teachers agree that marital conflict affects the affective development of students in Church-administered Senior Secondary Schools. It leads to poor socio-emotional development, students’ anxieties, students’ loneliness, and students’ depression and stress which affects academic performance. Table 4.5c below shows the summary of the mean ratings of the male and female teachers on marital conflict and psychomotor development.

Table 4.5c: Summary of Male and Female Teachers’ Mean Ratings

  Male TeachersFemale Teachers
Item No.StatementsMeanDecisionMeanDecision
AIt results in poor socio-emotional development which affects academic performance3.47Positive3.37Positive
BIt leads to students’ anxieties which affect academic performance3.17Positive3.38Positive
CIt results in students’ loneliness which affects academic performance3.16Positive3.33Positive
DIt leads to students’ depression and stress which affects academic performance3.23Positive3.23Positive
 Total13.03 13.31 
 Pooled Mean3.26Positive3.33Positive

4.6     Discussion of the Results

This research studied the effects of marital conflict on the academic development of students in church-administered senior secondary schools in Umuahia Educational Zone using the survey method. The results of the questionnaires were presented and analyzed above to show the effects of marital conflict on the academic development, psychomotor development, cognitive development, and affective development of students.  Using mean rating for both male and female teachers, accepting any statement which mean rating is 2.50 and above and rejected any statement which mean rating is less than 2.50.

The results of the responses to research question one show that marital conflict significantly affects the academic development of students in Senior Secondary Schools. According to the results, the male teachers have a pooled mean rating of 3.14 while the female teachers have a pooled mean rating of 3.30. This implies that the majority of the male and female teachers strongly affirm that marital conflict affects the cognitive development of students, affective development of students, and psychomotor development of students.

The results of responses to research question two also positively affirm that marital conflicts have effects on the psychomotor development of senior secondary school students. According to the results, the male teachers responded positively with a pooled mean rating of 3.07 to all the statements relating to the psychomotor development of students. Also, the female teachers responded positively to all the statements relating to the psychomotor development of students with a pooled mean of 3.19. The results show that marital conflicts lead to poor attendance to lectures: male teachers agreed to this statement with a mean rating of 2.62 while female teachers agreed to this statement with a mean rating of 3.08. Secondly, marital conflicts lead to students’ mobility and referrals for behavioral problems: the male teachers positively accept this statement with a mean rating of 3.06 while the female teachers accepted the statement with a rated mean of 3.19. Thirdly, it is observed that marital conflicts lead to suspension from school as affected students show behavioral problems. This statement was supported by male and female teachers with mean ratings of 3.28 and 3.23 respectively. Finally, it is noted that marital conflicts lead to an unwillingness to experiment with new concepts. According to responses to this statement, the male teachers agreed with a rating of 3.33 while female teachers agreed with a rating of 3.25.

Research question three tries to elicit responses on the effects of marital conflicts on the cognitive development of students. The results of the responses from both male and female teachers reiterate that marital conflicts have effects on the cognitive development of senior secondary school students. According to the results, the male teachers responded positively with a pooled mean rating of 3.11 to all the statements relating to the cognitive development of students. Also, the female teachers responded positively to all the statements relating to the cognitive development of students with a pooled mean of 3.03. The results show that marital conflicts lead to various learning difficulties: male teachers agreed to this statement with a mean rating of 3.17 while female teachers agreed to this statement with a mean rating of 2.73. Secondly, marital conflicts impose temporal interruption in the learning process of students: the male teachers positively accept this statement with a mean rating of 3241 while the female teachers accepted the statement with a rated mean of 3.00. Thirdly, it is observed that marital conflicts lead to a lack of learning materials as parents of such homes suffer from insufficient income to buy materials for their ward. This statement was supported by male and female teachers with mean ratings of 3.09 and 3.18 respectively. Fourthly, it is noted that marital conflicts affect students’ class participation. Similarly, male teachers agreed with a rating of 3.06 while the female teachers agreed with a rating of 3.16. Fifthly, the results show that marital conflicts affect the student’s long-term academic achievement. Male and female teachers responded positively to this with ratings of 3.06 and 3.03 respectively. Finally, it is gathered that marital conflicts lead to examination malpractices. According to responses to this statement, the male teachers agreed with a rating of 3.02 while female teachers agreed with a rating of 3.05.

Finally, the results of responses to research question four also positively affirm that marital conflicts have effects on the affective development of senior secondary school students. According to the results, the male teachers responded positively with a pooled mean rating of 3.26 to all the statements relating to the affective development of students. Also, the female teachers responded positively to all the statements relating to the affective development of students with a pooled mean of 3.33. The results show that marital conflicts lead to poor socio-emotional development which affects academic performance: male teachers agreed to this statement with a mean rating of 3.47 while female teachers agreed to this statement with a mean rating of 3.37. Secondly, marital conflicts lead to students’ anxieties which affect academic performance: the male teachers positively accept this statement with a mean rating of 3.17 while the female teachers accepted the statement with a rated mean of 3.38. Thirdly, it is observed that marital conflicts lead to students’ loneliness which affects academic performance. This statement was supported by male and female teachers with mean ratings of 3.16 and 3.33 respectively. Finally, it is noted that marital conflicts lead to students’ depression and stress which affects academic performance. According to responses to this statement, the male teachers agreed with a rating of 3.23 while female teachers agreed with a rating of 3.23.

Chi-square (X2) is used in testing the hypotheses.

Hypothesis One:

Ho: There is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on the academic development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia education zone, Abia state.

From the analyzed research question no. 1, the mean ratings of these opinions provide data for this testing.

Table 4.6a: Observed and Expected Means for Hypothesis one

 Male teachersFemale teachers 
 OEOERow Total
(6.74)49.85% (3.36)48.73%50.15% (3.38)51.27%100%
(6.29)48.17% (3.03)48.73%51.83% (3.26)51.27%100%
(6.29)48.17% (3.03)48.73%51.83% (3.26)51.27%100%
Column Total146.19146.19153.81153.81300

Table 4.6b: Chi-square calculation for Hypothesis One

 OEO – E(O – E)2Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 9
A49.8548.731.121.250.03
A50.1551.271.121.250.03
B48.1748.730.560.310.01
B51.8351.270.560.310.01
C48.1748.730.560.310.01
C51.8351.270.560.310.01
    Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 100.1

Degree of Freedom (df) = (C-1) (R-1) = (6-1)(2-1) = 5

Decision:

Since the X2 calculated (0.1) is less than the X2 table (11.070) at df 5 and at 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is accepted. This means that there is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on the academic development of students in church-administered S.S.S in Umuahia education Zone.

Hypothesis Two:

Ho: There is no significant difference in the opinions of male teachers and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on the psychomotor development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia education zone, Abia state.

From the summary of research question two, the mean ratings were used to compute the table below:

Table 4.7a: Observed and Expected Means for Hypothesis Two

 Male TeachersFemale Teachers 
 OEOERow Total
(5.7)45.97% (2.62)48.98%54.03% (3.08)51.02100%
(6.25)48.96% (3.06)48.98%51.04% (3.19)51.02100%
(6.51)50.38% (3.28)48.98%49.62% (3.23)51.02100%
(6.58)50.61% (3.33)48.98%49.39% (3.25)51.02100%
Column Total195.92195.92204.08204.08400

Table 4.7b: Chi-square calculation for Hypothesis Two

 OEO – E(O – E)2Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 9
A45.9748.983.019.060.19
A54.0351.023.019.060.18
B48.9648.980.020.000.00
B51.0451.020.020.000.00
C50.3848.981.41.960.04
C49.6251.021.41.960.04
D50.6148.981.632.660.05
D49.3951.021.632.660.03
    Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 100.53

Degree of Freedom (df) = (C-1) (R-1) = (8-1)(2-1) = 7

Decision: Since the X2 calculated (0.53) is less than the X2 table (14.067) at df 7 and 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is hereby accepted.

Hypothesis Three:

Ho: There is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on the cognitive development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia education zone, Abia state.

The above hypothesis is computed from the summary of mean ratings of research question three.

Table 4.8a: Observed and Expected Means for Hypothesis Three

 Male TeachersFemale Teachers 
 OEOERow Total
(5.9)53.73% (3.17)50.80%46.27% (2.73)49.20%100%
(6.24)51.92% (3.24)50.80%48.08% (3.00)49.20%100%
(6.27)49.28% (3.09)50.80%50.72% (3.18)49.20%100%
(6.22)49.20% (3.06)50.80%50.80% (3.16)49.20%100%
(6.09)50.25% (3.06)50.80%49.75% (3.03)49.20%100%
(6.07)50.41% (3.02)50.80%49.59% (3.05)49.20%100%
Column Total304.79304.79295.21295.21600

Table 4.8b: Chi-square calculation for Hypothesis Three

 OEO – E(O – E)2Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 9
A53.7350.802.938.590.17
A46.2749.202.938.590.18
B51.9250.801.121.250.03
B48.0849.201.121.250.03
C49.2850.801.522.310.05
C50.7249.201.522.310.05
D49.2050.801.602.560.05
D50.8049.201.602.560.05
E50.2550.800.550.300.01
E49.7549.200.550.300.01
F50.4150.800.390.150.00
F49.5949.200.390.150.00
    Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 100.63

Degree of Freedom (df) = (C-1) (R-1) = (12-1)(2-1) = 11

Decision: Since the X2 calculated (0.63) is less than the X2 table (19.675) at df 11 and 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is hereby accepted.

Hypothesis Four

Ho: There is no significant difference in the opinions of male teachers and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on the affective development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia education zone, Abia state.

The hypothesis is computed from the summary of the mean rating of research question four.

Table 4.9a: Observed and Expected Means for Hypothesis Four

 Male TeachersFemale Teachers 
 OEOERow Total
(6.84)50.73% (3.47)49.46%49.27% (3.37)50.54%100%
(6.55)48.40% (3.17)49.46%51.60% (3.38)50.54%100%
(6.49)48.69% (3.16)49.46%51.31% (3.33)50.54%100%
(6.46)50% (3.23)49.46%50% (3.23)50.54%100%
Column Total197.82197.82202.18202.18400

Table 4.8b: Chi-square calculation for Hypothesis Three

 OEO – E(O – E)2Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 9
A50.7349.461.271.610.03
A49.2750.541.271.610.03
B48.4049.461.061.120.02
B51.6050.541.061.120.02
C48.6949.460.770.590.01
C51.3150.540.770.590.01
D50.0049.460.540.290.01
D50.0050.540.540.290.01
    Chapter 4: Analysis of Results and Test of Hypotheses 100.14

Degree of Freedom (df) = (C-1) (R-1) = (8-1) (2-1) = 7

Decision: Since the X2 calculated (0.14) is less than the X2 table (14.067) at df 7 and 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is hereby accepted.

Conclusion

From the results tabulated above, we accept Ho in all the four (4) null hypotheses and conclude as follow:

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on the academic development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia education zone, Abia state.
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of male teachers and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on the psychomotor development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia education zone, Abia state.
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on cognitive development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia education zone, Abia state.
  4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of male teachers and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on the affective development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia education zone, Abia state.

Based on the results of the hypotheses testing, the researcher can conclude that the responses of the respondents were without bias and reflects the true opinions of the teachers on marital conflict and education development of church-administered senior secondary school students. Hence, the result can be generalized to reflect the true effects of marital conflicts on senior secondary school students.

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