This research is organized and released as follow:
5.1 Summary of Chapters
This study’s main goal is to identify the effects of marital conflicts on the academic development of students in senior secondary schools. The church-administered senior secondary schools in Umuahia Education Zone was used as a case study. Chapter one introduced the problem statement placing it within the context of secondary education in Nigeria. The objectives surveyed the constituents of marital conflict and their effects on the academic development of students. The study probed into the effects of marital conflicts on the academic development of students, psychomotor development, cognitive development, and affective development of students.
Chapter two reviewed theories and studies as they relate to marital conflicts and their effects on the academic development of students. The theoretical framework was based on psychodynamic theory. The theory is based on the principle to discover what has gone wrong in a given marital conflict, the marriage counselor needs to probe into the deep-seated character traits of the personalities involved. Furthermore, we discussed the concept of marital conflicts, its effects on children, and the academic development of students. We also discussed the effects of marital conflicts on academic performance and the relationship between marital conflicts and examination malpractice. Finally, empirical studies were documented.
Chapter three examined the area of study and research methodology. The methodology was discussed under the following heading: population of study, sample & sampling techniques, instrumentation, administration of instruments, and method of data analysis. Instrumentation of the study was discussed under the instrument for data collection, the validity of the instrument, and the reliability of the instrument.
The research used the survey method, hence, in chapter four, we presented the data in a tabular form and analyzed them using mean rating. Hypotheses stated in chapter one were tested using the Chi-square statistic for samples and all the null hypotheses were accepted at a 5% level of significance.
The researchers studied the effects of marital conflict on the academic development of students in church-administered senior secondary schools in Umuahia Educational Zone using the survey method. Mean rating was used during the analysis for both male and female teachers, thereby accepting any statement which mean rating is 2.50 and above and rejecting any statement which mean rating is less than 2.50.
The research findings show that marital conflicts significantly affect the academic development of students in Senior Secondary Schools. For purpose of clarity, marital conflicts affect the cognitive development of students, affective development of students, and psychomotor development of students.
Furthermore, the findings positively affirm that marital conflicts have effects on the psychomotor development of senior secondary school students in the following ways: it leads to poor attendance to lectures, students’ mobility and referrals for behavioral problems, suspension from school as affected students show behavioral problems, and students’ unwillingness to experiment with new concepts.
Also, it was found that marital conflicts have effects on the cognitive development of senior secondary school students in the following ways: it leads to various learning difficulties, imposes temporal interruption in the learning process of students, leads to lack of learning materials as parents of such homes suffer from insufficient income to buy materials for their ward, affects students’ class participation, leads to examination malpractices and affects the student’s long-term academic achievement.
It was also gathered that marital conflicts have effects on the affective development of senior secondary school students. According to the research findings, marital conflicts lead to poor socio-emotional development which affects academic performance. It also leads to students’ anxieties, students’ loneliness, and students’ depression and stress, all of which affect academic performance.
Finally, using Chi-Square statistic, the research found that there is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female teachers over whether marital conflicts have effects on academic development, psychomotor development, cognitive development, and affective development of students in church-administered Senior Secondary Schools (S.S.S) in Umuahia Education Zone, Abia state.
The primary aim of the researcher in this study is to evaluate the effects of marital conflicts on the academic performance of students from a new perspective. So far, most studies on marital conflicts have focused on children with a concentration on divorce. Some of these studies use government schools and focuses on subjects’ scores or grades as a criterion for the academic performance of students.
In this study, the researcher has tried to shift the focus to the issues that lead to marital conflicts without particular emphasis on divorce. The researcher also used church-administered secondary schools which has not been used by other studies. Finally, the researcher’s concentration on the study was not the effects of marital conflicts on students’ grades rather on academic development which encompasses cognitive development, psychomotor development, and affective development. These areas have not been dwelt on by most studies and they tell the long-term effects of marital conflicts on the academic development of students.
In addition, the responses from the survey validate the following contributions to the body of knowledge:
- The study provides a basis for studying the effects of marital conflicts on students. As previously noted, researchers direct their surveys on students using subject grades or students’ responses to the effects of marital conflicts. However, the focus of the survey shift to using the teachers who observe these effects for a longer period and can tell what their impacts are on the affected students. The experience of teachers that span from observing students from different backgrounds necessitates their quality as respondents for the research, hence their responses cannot be considered bias since they speak from experience.
- The study provides an answer that marital conflicts affect students’ academic development, which is critical for the future success of secondary school students. The study hence provides that marital conflicts affect the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development of secondary school students. This is important for every parent, guidance, and administrators to know because the future of our children should be shaped by us.
- One major contribution of the study is that it provides that marital conflicts lead to examination malpractices in schools.
- The study provides a guideline for the evaluation of the effects of marital conflicts on secondary school students. One of the expected important knowledge contributions from the study is that it could provide a sort of guideline in the evaluation of the effects of marital conflicts. The focus of most studies is based on views of the affected persons which could be subjective. These systems are heavily biased towards because it gives a short-term effect on marital conflict. But when the effects are viewed from the long term perspective of those who have observed and experienced such, then the results are objective.
- The study provides knowledge and counsel to parents, guidance, ministers, administrators on the enduring effects of marital conflicts on secondary school students. This should help them fight everything that will lead to conflicts in marriages.
Based on the results obtained in the study, the following are recommended.
- Married couples should stop reprimanding each other openly in the presence of their children.
- Spouses who are experiencing marital pressure should try to strike a balance between home activities, family issues, and their children’s academic work.
- Married couples should try by sponsoring the education of their children to avoid them from dropping out of school. This will equally help them to concentrate on their academics and to obtain good grades.
- Couples should try not to be distracted by any form of marital conflict, instead, they should focus on building their homes for the sake of the future of their children and their academic development. A peaceful home will go a long way in enhancing a student’s academic performance. The couple should try to stay peaceful and learn how to share their hopes, dreams, goals, and success, this will help them to think beyond marital conflict.
- The teachers, church, neighbors, and all children lovers should make it their responsibility to cater to all the children, especially, those from a conflicting home, regardless of being their biological parents.
- Secondary schools at all levels should have strong guidance and counseling units to assist all the students in need of special attention.
- The Ministry of Education and other governmental agencies in collaboration with schools and religious organizations should work together to develop training programs on love, marriage, and care for parents to educate society on the importance of love and family care for healthy families, communities, and society in general.
Church-administered secondary schools were believed to offer high-quality education with the inclusion of moral standards among students. The high demand for church-administered secondary schools is because of their academic standard and at the same time they provide programs of study, devotional life, and practical experience for students to prepare themselves for the future with grounded knowledge. This is to fulfill the purpose of education which finds its relevance when students can learn and implement their knowledge in everyday activities as well as find solutions to societal problems. One of the major purposes of education is to motivate, equip, and enable the students to develop their gifts and give their lives in meaningful service (Ukpong, 2009; Kinsler, 1983:1-5).
It is important to know that these findings coincide with that of Whitemarsh (2008:145-155) who found that educators are often the first to notice a behavior change when a family is in transition. Teachers have observed that some students from conflict-driven homes may show decreased functioning in academic performance and display oppositional behavior, or signs of anxiety and depression. The results showed that marital conflicts lead to anxiety, loneliness, depression, and more, which affect students’ academic performance. This observation is consistent with Smith (1999:111) who argues that the range of feelings that a child may encounter include; disbelief and denial, sadness, loss, loneliness, depression, anger, anxiety, fear, relief, and hope. Responses to these feelings often affect children’s performance.
Furthermore, the study found that marital conflicts lead to students’ poor attendance at school. This finding is in line with Biblarz (2000:533) who conducted a study to compare the academic performance of children of divorce with children of widowed mothers. His findings conclude that children of divorce were less likely to complete high school, attend college, or attend graduate school than children of widowed mothers. This finding is also supported by McLanahan and Sandefur’s study of 1994 which found that children from divorced homes were two times as likely to drop out of high school than children from two-parent homes. The study equally found that marital conflicts lead to students’ various learning difficulties and affect the student’s long-term academic achievement. These findings are in agreement with other studies such as those of Astone & McLanahan, (1991:145-157); and Teachman, Paasch, & Carver (1996:773-783), who argued that children with divorced parents score lower than children with continuously married parents on the measure of academic success. Likewise, Hurlock (2004:55-67), reported that the temporary absence of either parent could be damaging to children than a permanent break. He added that such a temporary break for a child could be stressful and affect their concentration and academic performance.
The study also found that marital conflicts lead to a lack of learning materials as such that parents suffer insufficient income. On this, Erel & Burman (1995:108-132), argued that parents in a dysfunctional marriage are likely to be distressed and distracted by conflicts with their spouse that they cannot afford to invest their time, resources, and energy in their children. Moreover, this study found that marital conflicts lead to student mobility and referrals for behavioral problems. This finding is in line with other studies. It has been shown that inappropriate parenting style worsens parent-child relations and leads to juvenile delinquency. Buehler and Gerard (2002:79-92) support this view by stating that adolescents from single-parent families were involved in higher rates of delinquent behavior and that minorities from single-parent families were especially more likely to be involved in certain types of delinquency than were other students.
This study therefore has established that marital conflicts significantly affect students’ academic development. It specially established that marital conflicts affect students of senior secondary schools’ cognitive development, psychomotor development, and affective development, which affect their overall academic development.
Abane, H. (2003). For better for worse: Social dimension of marital conflict in Ghana. Gender and Behaviour, 1(11), 120-132.
Abu, E., and Kolawale, A. (2012). Family Pattern: Marital Education. Lagos: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Adesulu, D. (2016), Education in Nigeria: The Problem’s with Quality, not Standards, Vanguard, October, 16.
Akanbi, M. I (2014). Impacts of divorce on academic performance of senior secondary students in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State. Education Research Journal, 4(5), 59-64.
Alan, B, and Johnson, D. (1983). Measuring Marital lnstability. Journal of Marriage and the family 45, 373 – 387.
Animasahun, R.A. (2011), Influence of Marital Discord, Separation and Divorce on Poor Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students of the University of Ibadan. Nigerian School Health Journal. 23.1, 79 – 90.
Animasahun, R.A. (2014). Marital Conflict, Divorce, and Single Parenthood as Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behaviour in Ibadan. British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 4(5): 592-602.
Astone, N. M. & McLanahan, S. S. (1994). Family structure, residential mobility, and school dropout: a research note. Demography, 31(4), 575-584.
Astone, N.M, and Mclanahan S.S (1991). Family Structure, Parental Practices, and School Competition. American Sociological Review. (ERIC Journal No EJ429517).
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J:
Biblarz, T. (2000). Family structures and children’s success: A comparison of widowed and divorced single-mother families. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 62, (2), May, 533.
Birch, H., and Ladd, T. (2007). Pre-marital Cohabitation and Subsequent Marital Dissolution: is it self-selection? Demography 32(3), 437-58.
Blanchard, R.W. & Biller, H.B. (1971). Father availability and academic performance among third-grade boys. Developmental Psychology. 4, 301-305.
Bornstein, P.H., and Bornstein, M.T. (1986). Marital Therapy: A behavioral Communication Approach. New York: Pergamon Press.
Brimble M and Stevenson-Clarke, P, (2005). Perceptions of the prevalence and seriousness of academic dishonesty in Australian Universities. The Australian Educational Researcher.
Buehler, C., & Gerard, J. M. (2002). Marital Conflict, Ineffective Parenting, and Children’s and Adolescents’ Maladjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64,78-92.
Buehler, C., Krishna Kumar, A., Anthony, C., Tittsworth, S., Stone, G., (1994, October). Hostile interparental Conflict and Youth Maladjustment.
Canary, H. E., and Canary, D. J. (2013). Family Conflict Managing the Unexpected. Oxford: Polity Press.
Cardiff University. (2005, May 9). Parental Conflict Can Affect School Performance. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 19, 2017, from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050509114047.htm
Cherlin, A. J., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., & McRae, C. (1998). Effects of divorce on mental health throughout the life course. American Sociological Review, 63, 239-249.
Coffman, S.G. & Roark A.E. (1992), A Profile of Adolescent Anger in Diverse Family Configurations and Recommendations for Intervention, The School Counselor, 39, 211-216.
Connell, J. P., Halpern-Felsher, B. L., Clifford, E., Crichlow, W., & Usinger, P. (1995), Hanging in There: Behavioral, Psychological, and Contextual Factors Affecting Whether African American Adolescents stay in High School, Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 41–63.
Connell, O., and Wellborn, U. (2014). Children and Parents Relationship. Journal of Family Issues, 5(2), 23-47.
Conners C.K., Sitarenios G., Parker J.D., Epstein J.N. (1998). The Revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R): Factor Structure, Reliability, and Criterion Validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 26(4):257 – 68.
Cowan, C. P., & Cowan, P. (2000). When Partners Become Parents: The big life change for couples. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cummings, E. M., Goeke-Morey, M. C., Papp, L. M. (2004). Everyday marital conflict and child aggression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32 (2), 191-202.
Davies, P. T. (2006). Marital conflict and its Effects on Children. Child Development. New York: the University of Rochester and the University of Notre Dame, February, 16.
Davies, P.T., Sturge-Apple, M.L., Cicchetti, D., and Cummings, E.M. (2008). Adrenocortical underpinnings of children’s psychological reactivity to interparental conflict. Child Development. 79: 1693–1706.
Dawson, Patrice. (1984). The effect of the single-parent family on academic achievement. Review of Related Literature. July, 3-12.
Drinkworth, A. (2014). Positive & Negative Influences of Parents on Their Children. Global Post, America World News site. Retrieved from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/positive-negative-influences-parents-children-6070.html
Ejide, B. (2006). “A predictor of adolescent socio-emotional development and consequent academic achievement”. Akubue, A. U. (Ed) Internal Journal of Educational Research. 1(1) 1-11.
Elder, G. H., & Conger, R. D. (2000), Children of the Land: Adversity and Success in Rural America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
El-Sheikh, M., & Elmore-Staton, L. (2004). The Link between Marital Conflict and Child Adjustment: Parent-Child Conflict and Perceived Attachments As Mediators, Potentiators, and Mitigators of Risk. Development and Psychopathology, 16 (3) 631-648.
El-Sheikh, M., & Whitson, S. A. (2006). Longitudinal relations between marital conflict and child adjustment: Vagal regulation as a protective factor. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(1), 30-39.
Erel, O., & Burman, B. (1995). The interrelatedness of Marital Relations and Parent-Child Relations: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 108-132.
Evans, M, Harkness, S., and Ortiz, R. (2004). Lone Parents Cycling Between Work and Benefits. London: Department for Work and Pensions.
Eyoh, E. (2013). Parents responsible for Exam Malpractice – Expert. Vanguard, May, 16.
Ezegbe, C. (1997). Management of Conflict in Nigeria Education System in Ndu, R.N. Ocho, L.O., and Okeke, B.S. (eds). Dynamics of Educational Administration and Management: The Nigerian Perspective. Awka: Meks Publishers.
Ezeike, E. A. (1998). Single Parenthood as it Influences Maladaptive Behaviour in Students. Journal of the Counseling Association of Nigeria. The Counselor 16(2) 72-76.
Ezennay, G. A. (2006). The Effect of Marital Instability: Problems and Trends. Benin City: Excel Group.
Ezeomah, C., Akpan, U., and Oyetunde, T.O. (1999). Innovative approaches to Education and
Feshbach, N.D. and Feshbach, S. (1987), Affective Processes and Academic Achievement, Child Development, 58, 1335 – 1347.
Filani, T.O. (1985). An Experimental Study of communication skill training and Cognitive restructuring on the marital adjustment of some Nigerian couples Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan.
Gaither, R., Bingen, K., & Hopkins, J. (2000). When the bough breaks: The relationship between chronic illness in children and couple functioning. IN K. B. Schmaling & T. G. Sher (Eds.), The psychology of couples and illness: Theory, research, & practice (337-365). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Gallegos, D. (2014). Should You Pay a Kid for Getting Good Grades? The Wall Street Journal. Available on <http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB1000142412788732340710457903693 1930916274
Garber, J., & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.). (1991). The Development of Emotion Regulation and Dysregulation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Garmezy, N. & Rutter, M. (1985), Acute Reactions to Stress, In M. Rutter and L. Hersov (eds). Child Psychiatry: Modern Approaches, Blackwell Scientific Press, Oxford.
Garmezy, N., Rutter, M., Izard, C.E., and Read, P.B. (1986), Developmental Aspects of Children’s Responses to the Stress of Separation and Loss, In Depression in Young People, 300, New York: Guildford Press.
Ghazarian, S., and Buehler, C. (2010). Interparental conflict and academic achievement: An examination of mediating and moderating factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 39: 23–35.
Gitaari, S. (2002). Resolving Conflicts in Marriage. Nairobi: Uzima Publishing Press.
Goldberg, H., and Goldberg, I. (1990). Changing Triyes, Marriage, Divorce, Remarriage. Counseling Today’s Families. Califonia: Brools / Cole Publishing Company, Pacific Grove.
Goldenberg, I. and Goldenberg, H. (2000). Family Therapy: An Overview. (5th Ed). USA: Wadsworth.
Grugni, A. (2004). Preparing for Marriage: A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for a Happy Married Life. Mumbai: Better Yourself Books.
Grych, J. H., Seid, M., & Fincham, F. D. (1992). Assessing marital conflict from the child’s perspective: The children’s perception of interparental conflict scale. Child Development, 63(3), 558-572.
Grych, J.H., & Fincham, F.D. (1990). Marital conflict and children’s adjustment: A cognitive-contextual framework. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 267-290.
Guidubaldi, J., Perry, J.D., Cleminshaw, H. & McCouglin, C.S. (1983). The impact of parental divorce on children: Report on the nationwide NASP study. School Psychological Review. 12 (3).
Harold, G. T., Aitken, J. J., & Shelton, K. H. (2007). Inter-parental conflict and children’s academic attainment: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(12), 1223–1232.
Hinnant, J. B., El-Sheikh, M., Keiley, M., and Buckhalt, J. A. (2013). Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children’s Fluid Cognitive Performance. Child Development. (84), 6:10.
Howell, E., Portes, V., and Brown, U. (2007). Adolescent adjustment to family instability. New times Magazine, 11th March.
Human Development. Jos: LECAPS Ltd., p. 33.
Hurlock, E. B. (2004). Child Growth and Development. New York: Mc.Graw Hill Company.
Jenkins, J. M., & Smith, M. A. (1991). Marital disharmony and children’s behavior problems: Aspects of a poor marriage that affect children adversely. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32(5), 793-810.
Kelly, J. B. (2000). Children’s adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: A decade review of research. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(8), 963-973.
Kendall, P.C. & Dobson, K.S. (1993), On the Nature of Cognition and its Role in Antisocial, 3-17, in K.S.
Kim, H. S. (2011). Consequences of parental divorce for child development. American Sociological Review, 76, 487-511.
Kinsler, R. (1983). Minister by the People. Geneva: WCC.
Kithaka, G. (2006, March 15). Marriage? Not for Me. The Daily Nation, pp. 6.
Kitzmann, K.M., Gaylord, N.K., Holt, A.R., and Kenny, E.D. (2003). Child witnesses to domestic violence: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 71: 339–352.
Kiura, J.M. (1999). On Life and Love: Guidelines for Parents and Educators. Nairobi: Pauline Publications Africa.
Koch, J.L, Tung, R., Gamelch, W., and Swent, B. (1982). Job stress among school Administrators: Factorial dimensions and differential effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, (48), 159 – 164.
Lesmin, P., and Sarker, O. (2008). Marital instability and its impact on women and children. Educational Psychology Research, 4(3), 97-122.
Majoribanks, M. (2003). Role of gender in family instability. The Nigerian Journal, 10(23), 98-119.
Mangus, A.R. (1957). The Role Theory and Marriage Counselling. Social Forces (35) 200 – 2.
Martin, S.E. & Clements, M.L. (2002). Young Children’s Responding to Interparental Conflict: Associations with Marital Aggression and Child Adjustment. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 11(2): 231 – 244. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015133827129
McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G. (1994). Growing up with a Single Parent: What hurts, what helps. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and Family Therapy. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Misbach, L. (1948). Psychoanalysis and Theories of Learning. Psychological Review, 55(3), 143-156.
Moji, R. A., Ijoyah, T.D.W, and Ijoyah, J. O. (2015). Causes and Effects of Marital Conflict on Educational and Social Development of Primary School Pupils in the North-West Zone B Educational District, Benue State, Nigeria: Teachers Perception. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences. 53, 101 – 106.
Moses, A., and Oshikoya, W. (2012). Examination Malpractice spells doom for Education Sector. Vanguard. August, 9.
Mufson, L., Moreau, D., Weissman, M. & Klerman, G. (1993), Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents, New York: Guildford Press.
Mundek, C.F. (1980). The effect that the change in status from an intact family to a single-parent family has on adolescent behavior and high school performance. Dissertation Abstract International. 41(3): 119 – 129.
Mysahana (2010). Effects of Marital Conflict on Children. November, 3.
National Mental Health Information Centre (2008).
Nnenna, M.N, and Nweke, C.C. (1989). Marital instability in Nigerian homes, possible Guidance: Guidance and Counselling principles and practices. Calabar: Parco Publishers.
Nnodium, M. (2001). Freedom and Growth in Marriage. Family Journal, 27(1), 20-26.
Nworgu, B. G. (2005). Educational Research Basic Issues and Methodology. 2nd ed. Nsukka: UTP.
Nwoye, A. (1991). Marriage and Family Counselling. Jos; Fab Anieh Nigeria Ltd. p.13.
Ogunna, U.C. (1993). Conflict in Secondary School Administration as perceived by Teachers and Students in Bauchi Educational Zone. Unpublished M. Ed Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Okorie, G. O. (2009). Relationship between Personal Factors and Marital Conflict Resolution Strategies among Married People in Enugu State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.ed Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Omojola, E. (1998). How to Handle Conflict in Marriage. Ibadan: Agape Publication.
Omonijo, D. O., Oludayo, O. A., Uche, O. O. C., and Rotimi, O.A. (2014). Curtailing Academic Dishonesty Using Student Affairs Personnel: The Case of a Private Faith-Based Higher Institution, South-West Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 5, 23: pp. 222 – 233.
Omonijo, D.O & Fadugba, O.A. (2011). Parental Influence on Wards in Escalation of Examination Misconduct in Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences, 19 (2), 297- 307.
Omoniyi-Oyafunke, C., Falola, H. O., and Salau, O. P. (2014). Effect of marital instability on children in Abeokuta metropolis. European Journal of Business and Innovation Research, 2(3), 68-77.
Otokunefor, T. (2011). Why Nigerian Universities Produce Poor Quality Graduates. Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No. 3: 1-22.
Owuamanam (2005), in iProject Master. A Survey Of Examination Malpractice Among Secondary School Students. Retrieved May 22, 2015 from http://www.iprojectmaster.com/EDUCATION /final-year-project-materials/a-survey-of-examination-malpractice-among-secondary-school-students.
Pallas, A. M. (2000), The Effects of Schooling on Individual Lives, In M.T. Hallinan (ed.), Handbook of Sociology of Education, Kluwer Academic, NY: Plenum Publishers, 499 – 525.
Parrott, L., and Parrott, L. (2013). The Good Fight: The 5 Biggest Areas of Conflict for Couples. Brentwood, TN: Worthy Publishing, a division of Worthy Media, Inc.
Parsa, N., Yaacoba, S.N., Redzuanba, M., Parsa, P., and Parsa, B. (2014). Effects of inter-parental conflict on college student’s self-efficacy in Hamadan, Iran. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. 152: 241 – 245.
Plomin, R, and Daniels, D. (1987). Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 10 (1): 1 – 16.
Raver, C. C. (2014). Exposure to Aggression between Parents can interfere with a Child’s Ability to Regulate Emotions. Retrieved from http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/site/ataglance/2014/09/fighting-parents-hurt-childrens-ability-to-regulate-emotions-finds-study-by-psychologists-at-nyu-steinhardt.html?utm_source=prnewsletter&utm_content=fighting-parents-hurt-childrens-ability-to-regulate-emotions-finds-study-by-psychologists-at-nyu-steinhardt&utm_medium=emaildirect&utm_campaign=oct2014]
Reher, D. S. (2008). Family ties in Western Europe: Persistent contrasts. Population and Development Review, 24(3), 203-234.
Robbins, S.P. (1978). The Administration Process Integrated Theory and Practice. India: Hall of India Private Ltd.
Rodgers, B. and Pryor, C. (1998), Parental Divorce and Adult Psychological Distress: Evidence from a National Birth Cohort: A Research Note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 38, 867 – 872.
Roseby, V. & Deutch, R. (1985). Children of separation and divorce: Effects of social role-taking group intervention on fourth and fifth graders. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 14(1), 55-60.
Rotimi, O.A., Omonijo, D.O, and Uche, O.O.C. (2014). Influence of Personality Types and Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Students on Examination Malpractice: Case of Secondary Schools in Ibadan. European Journal of Scientific Research, 124(4), 486-499.
Rutter, M. (1979), Protective Factors in Children’s Responses to Stress and Disadvantage. In: Kent, M.W. and Rolf, V.E. (eds). Primary Prevention of Psychopathology, 3, Social Competence of Children, 49-74, Press of New England, Manover.
Ryan, D., and Powelson, G. (2010). Marital instability: Children’s traumatic experience. American Psychologist, 53(2), 104-120.
Sadock, B., & Sadock, K. (2003). Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry, 9th ed., New York: William & Wilkins.
Sarigiani, G. (2008). Patterns of Marriage and Family Dissolution: Consume Resource. Port Harcourt: Adwin Publication.
Sasse, C.R. (1997). Families Today. New York: Glencoe/McGraw – Hill.
Saxton, L. (1972). Money and Marital Conflict. The individual Marriage and the Family. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, inc.
Sclafani, W., and Joseph, D. (2008). The Educated Parent: Recent Trends In Raising Children. London: Praeger Publishers.
Shaw, J. (1982). Psychological Androgyny and Stressful Life Events. Journal of Personality and social psychology 43, 143 – 148.
Shinn, M. (1978). Father absence and children’s cognitive development. Psychological Bulletin. 85(2), 295-324.
Sholfer, L. T. & Shoben, E. J. (1986). Psychology of Adjustment. Cambridge: River Side Press.
Smith, H. (1999). Children, Feelings, and Divorce. London: Free Association Books.
Society for Research in Child Development. (2013, March 28). Marital conflict causes stress in children, may affect cognitive development. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 18, 2017, from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130328080225.htm
Steinberg, L., & Silk, J. S. (2002), Parenting Adolescents, In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of Parenting, 1, 103–133, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Stiffman, A.R., Jung, K.G. & Feldman, R.A. (1985), A Multivariate Risk Model for Childhood Behavior Problems, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56.2, 204-211.
Svanum, S., Bringle, R.G. & McLaughlin, J.E. (1982). Father Absence and Cognitive Performance in a Large Sample of Six to Eleven-Year-Old Children. Child Development. 53: 136-143.
Teachman, J., Paasch, K., & Carver, K. (1996). Social Capital and Dropping out of School Early. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 58: 773-783.
The Guardian (2016), Poor Education and Nigeria’s Future, Editorial Board, March, 13.
Turkheimer, E., Waldron, M. (2000). Nonshared Environment: A Theoretical, Methodological, And Quantitative Review. Psychology Bulletin. 126(1):78-108.
Ugwuanyi, J.C. (2003), Physical Education Teacher Preparation in Nigeria Projections and Challenges, Multi-disciplinary Journal of Research Development. (NARD), 2, 120 – 121.
Ukpong, D. P. (2009). Nigerian Pentecostalism: Case, Diagnosis, and Prescription. Uyo: Fruities Publications.
Uwaifo, V.O. (2008), Effect of Family Structure and Parenthood on the Academic Performance of Nigerian University Students, Online from www. Republishes.com /02-journals 121-124, kamla-Ray2008.
Walckner, S. (2011). Long-term Effects of Conflict on Children. Marital Mediation: The Integrity Registry LLC. (September, 24).
Wallerstein, J. & Kelly, J. (1980). Surviving the Breakup. Basic Books.
Watson, B. D. (2017). 7 Common Conflict Issues in Marriage. Texarkana: Directed path Ministries.
Weakland, S.H. (1956). African Couples. New York: Harper and Row.
Webster, N. (1995). Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. New York: William Collins Publishers.
Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (1999). Marital Conflict Management Skills, Parenting Style, and Early-onset Conduct Problems: Processes and Pathways. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 40: 917–927.
Whitemarsh, S. (2008). Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions of Divorce. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI.
Wodarski, J.S. (1982). Single Parents and Children: A Review for Social Workers. Family Therapy. 9(3), 310-319.
Zakariya, S.B. (1982). Another Look at Children of Divorce. Principal. 62, 34-37.
Zimet, D. M., & Jacob, T. (2001). Influences of Marital Conflict on Child Adjustment: Review of Theory and Research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(4), 319-335.
EFFECTS OF MARITAL CONFLICT ON ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This questionnaire is designed to elicit data for research purposes only. Kindly complete the attached questionnaire terms as entitled below for the conduct of research in pursuance of a Master’s Degree thesis. Your response will be treated with the utmost confidentiality.
Thanks and may the Almighty God bless you
Please, fill in the following information:
Highest Academic Attainment ________________________________________________
Position/office in school (choose) Principal [ ] Teacher [ ]
Sex (choose) Male [ ] Female [ ]
Please, tick (√) in the appropriate column that best describes your opinion in each statement of the options.
Key: SA = Strongly Agreed (4); A = Agreed (3); D = Disagreed (2); SD = Strongly Disagreed (1).
- Do marital conflicts have effects on the academic development of students in church-administered S.S.S in Umuahia education zone?
|A||It has effects on the cognitive development of students|
|B||It has effects on affective development of students|
|C||It has effects on the psychomotor development of students|
- Do marital conflicts have effects on the cognitive development of students in church-administered S.S.S. in Umuahia education zone?
|A||It leads to poor attendance at lectures|
|B||It leads to student mobility and referrals for behavioral problems|
|C||It leads to suspension from school as affected students show behavioral problems|
|D||It leads to an unwillingness to experiment with new concepts|
- Do marital conflicts have effects on the cognitive development of students in church-administered S.S.S. in Umuahia education zone?
|A||It leads to various learning difficulties|
|B||It imposes temporal interruption in the learning process|
|C||It leads to a lack of learning materials as such parents suffer from insufficient income|
|D||It affects the students’ class participation|
|E||It affects the students’ long-term academic achievement|
|F||It leads to examination malpractices|
- Do marital conflicts have effects on the affective development of students in church-administered S.S.S. in Umuahia education zone?
|A||It results in poor socio-emotional development which affects academic performance|
|B||It leads to students’ anxieties which affect academic performance|
|C||It results in students’ loneliness which affects academic performance|
|D||It leads to students’ depression and stress which affects academic performance|