A counselor is a trained and impartial professional who can help you spiritually, academically, maritally, etc. He/she has been trained to assist in different ways using speech and other therapeutic approaches to bring solutions to problems.
In education, counselors are important, especially in secondary education when students are about to choose a career path.
In this article, we shall be discussing the meaning of counselor, and the steps to develop a good curriculum.
- The Meaning of Counselor?
- Who is a counselee?
- What Are the Theories of Counselling You Know?
- Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Theory
- Behavioral Theory
- Cognitive Theory
- Humanistic Approach
- Integrative/Holistic Therapy
- What Are the Basic Characteristics of A Good Counselor?
- Skills for building relationships
- Optimism and hope
- Multicultural sensitivity
- What Are The Duties Of Guidance And Counselor In A Typical School?
- What Are the Challenges a Counselor Faces in a School System?
- Lack of cooperation:
- Inadequate Facilities:
- Lack of or Insufficient Funding:
- Lack of Expertise:
- Lack of Support:
- Time Shortage:
- Neglect from Parents:
- What is Attitude?
- What Are the Vices Inherent Among Students In Secondary School?
- What is Curriculum?
A counselor is a trained, impartial professional who can help you heal and build trust. They have received training to assist in a variety of ways; most often, through talk-based approaches to therapy.
The process of talking about and working through personal issues with a counselor is known as counseling. By assisting you in gaining self-awareness, exploring options, developing strategies, and clarifying the issues at hand, the counselor supports you in addressing your issues constructively. Simply telling their story to a counselor and being listened to can be helpful for some people.
Within a variety of community settings, a counselor offers support services, counseling services, and/or rehabilitation services. Depending on where they work and what they specialize in, their responsibilities can vary.
Addictions, trauma, disabilities, career counseling, academic counseling, mental health issues, family issues, and employment needs are just a few of the many issues that can arise for a counselor.
Clients, whether they are individuals, families, couples, or groups, are the focus of the compassionate and nonjudgmental care that counselors aim to provide. They collaborate with clients to offer assistance, resources, and direction as they work toward goals related to their education, careers, mental health, and wellness. They adhere to established ethics, methods, and guidelines for mental health care.
A counselee is a person who needs to be counseled. He/she is usually the counselor’s client. The counselee goes to the counselor with hi/her problems to receive counseling or a solution.
The pillars of the profession are counseling theories and counseling therapies. Most counselors have probably taken at least one course on counseling theories, and the names of the most well-known theorists, such as Sigmund Freud, Albert Ellis, Carl Rogers, and others, are legendary and well-known.
The “historical perspective,” also known as psychoanalysis or psychodynamic theory, was founded by Sigmund Freud, who held the belief that unconscious forces drive behavior. Psychoanalysts still use the methods he developed, such as free association (talking freely with the therapist about whatever comes up without censoring), dream analysis (looking at dreams for important information about the unconscious), and transference (focusing one’s emotions on the therapist).
Using this method, counselors and psychotherapists typically focus a lot of their attention and energy on analyzing an individual’s past relationships and, particularly, traumatic childhood experiences in relation to their current life. Treatment and healing are believed to be possible if these issues are revealed and brought to the surface. Counselors are discovering, as neuroscience advances, how psychodynamic theory can actually have a positive effect on a client’s brain. This theory is the subject of extensive research. The psychodynamic hypothesis can be additional time escalated in contrast with a few transient speculations since it includes changing profoundly imbued ways of behaving and requires critical work on grasping one’s self.
The foundation of the behavioral theory is the idea that behavior can be taught. One form of behavioral treatment that derives from the work of early theorist Ivan Pavlov is classic conditioning. Pavlov conducted a well-known study with dogs that examined the consequences of a learned reaction to stimuli (such as a dog salivating in response to hearing a bell) (e.g., pairing the sound of a bell with food).
Another behavioral therapy strategy, known as operant conditioning, was created by B. F. Skinner. He thought that rewards could make something more likely to happen and that penalties could make something less likely to happen. Through behavior modification strategies like positive or negative reinforcement, behavioral therapists try to change undesirable and harmful habits.
Aaron Beck, a psychotherapist, created a cognitive theory in the 1960s. The main idea behind this counseling theory is that thoughts have the power to alter feelings and actions. Therapy based on cognitive theory is brief and problem-focused, in contrast to psychodynamic theory. Cognitive therapists place less emphasis on their patients’ backgrounds and more on their current circumstances and flawed thinking. Counselors and therapists frequently mix cognitive and behavioral treatment into one paradigm. Research has shown that cognitive behavioral treatment, or CBT, can help with a variety of mental illnesses, such as anxiety, personality, eating, and substance addiction disorders.
Presenting and assisting their patients in realizing their full potential is what humanistic therapists care about most. Humanists stress a person’s self-growth and self-actualization and place a greater emphasis on them than on past or destructive actions. They also hold a strong belief in the goodness of all individuals.
Client-centered, gestalt and existential therapies are examples of humanistic theories. Client-centered therapy, which places a strong emphasis on the idea that patients are in charge of their own lives, was created by Carl Rogers. He thought that all therapists had to do was demonstrate their sincere concern and interest. The work of gestalt therapists is more concerned with what is happening right now than with what is being stated during therapy. By emphasizing free will, self-determination, and responsibility, existential therapists assist clients in discovering meaning in their lives.
Integrative and holistic therapy entails using numerous components from diverse philosophies in the practice. Holistic therapy might incorporate non-conventional therapies like hypnotherapy or guided imagery in addition to conventional talk therapy. Utilizing the psychotherapy techniques and tools that are most appropriate for a given client and situation is the key.
Counselors have a variety of therapeutic modalities to study, but the success of the client-therapist connection is more important than the theory of study.
Six personal traits are essential for effective counselors and should be continuously developed. These include trustworthiness, adaptability, self-awareness, cultural sensitivity, and excellent interpersonal skills.
Skills for building relationships
Counselors must be able to communicate clearly and effectively. Not only is it important to be able to teach clients about therapeutic topics, but it’s also important to know how much they understand at any given time.
The foundations of effective therapy are being able to relate to clients by showing warmth, acceptance, and empathy and being able to sense what they are thinking and feeling. Downloading our Emotional Intelligence Exercises can help you develop empathy and interpersonal skills.
According to Hill and Knox (2001), most people can tell whether a person they meet can be trusted within 50 milliseconds. Counselors must be able to convey their trustworthiness verbally and nonverbally.
Clients must be able to freely disclose private, confidential information and aspects of themselves that others frequently are unaware of. A deeper connection with the therapist can be achieved by having faith in the quality of the relationship and the confidentiality of what is disclosed.
A good counselor will devise an effective, individualized treatment plan for each client. This indicates that the counselor should not employ a “one-size-fits-all” or rigid treatment schedule.
Prochaska and Norcross (2001) discovered that certain disorders respond better to certain treatments than others. The best way to use therapeutic techniques is to match the treatment to the client’s readiness level. Also, instructors should have the option to adjust and head in a different direction in the event that treatment isn’t working for the client.
Optimism and hope
Hope is a powerful motivator. A good counselor can strike a balance between optimism and reality. A good counselor will set goals that are attainable, engage the client, and make them feel better about themselves.
Clients will acquire a sense of resilience and confidence as attainable goals are accomplished, which can be beneficial in all aspects of life. Positive psychology is so effective at improving emotional health because of these characteristics.
The American Psychological Association advises therapists to adapt treatment to a client’s cultural values and to show respect for differences in beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Being aware of and sensitive to issues of race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, and cultural background is essential when working with clients.
A good counselor can tell the difference between the client’s problems and their own. Countertransference is a peculiarity portrayed by Freud where issues communicated by a client lead to a profound response of the specialist. Counselors will be less likely to react to their own issues during sessions if they are able to identify and control their responses, which will have no negative impact on therapy.
The capacity to determine how much information should be disclosed to customers is one aspect of self-awareness. This will differ from case to case, but essential components include professional boundaries, personal insight, and the capacity to read others.
Through a school counseling program, a professional known as a school counselor works in primary (elementary, middle, and secondary) schools to provide all students with academic, career, college access, affordability, and social-emotional competencies.
In schools, guidance counselors work with students and their parents to help them grow academically, socially, and behaviorally. This field employs individuals in elementary, middle, and high schools. The qualifications needed to become a guidance counselor are discussed in this article.
- From kindergarten to 12th grade, school guidance counselors assist students in resolving academic, social, and personal issues. Alcohol and substance abuse, family violence, and interpersonal conflicts among students are all issues that are identified by elementary school counselors as well as by high school counselors. They respond by resolving these issues by employing a variety of counseling techniques and conflict resolution skills.
- Additionally, counselors assist students in determining and adhering to their preferred educational path.
- In addition to addressing social and academic issues, guidance counselors in high schools assist students in achieving their post-high school objectives. These instructors assist with picking secondary school classes that get ready understudies for their post-graduation plans.
- Also, they assist students in applying to colleges or trade schools by providing information regarding financial aid and admission requirements.
- In order to make a difference in the lives of their students, both inside and outside of the classroom, school counselors take on a variety of roles.
- According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), a typical job description for a school counselor includes the following tasks:
- Addressing social or behavioral issues; assisting students in developing the skills necessary for academic success; advising individuals and small groups; assessing students’ abilities and interests; assisting students in achieving their academic or career goals;
- School counselors also collaborate with teachers, administrators, and parents to assist students in improving their classroom performance. They might suggest additional support from outside sources.
- These professionals have been trained to identify and report potential cases of abuse or neglect because they are in a position to work closely with students.
The followings are the difficulties and issues that guidance and counseling face:
Lack of cooperation:
Although providing guidance and counseling to a person in need is unquestionably a useful method of doing so, not everyone may be willing to accept the advice. It’s possible that a lot of people won’t follow the advice given to them, which could make it hard for guidance to get through to them.
Guidance and counseling services cannot operate effectively without adequate facilities. A guidance and counseling room, appropriate furniture, bookshelves, and other similar amenities are required.
Lack of or Insufficient Funding:
Counseling and guidance take place in a positive and motivating environment. However, if there are insufficient facilities, this is impossible. Funding is required to ensure that facilities are adequate, and many educational establishments lack funding for guidance and counseling.
Lack of Expertise:
Guidance and counseling are frequently used interchangeably. They do, however, differ slightly. Counseling, on the other hand, can only be provided by an expert in the field. Guidance can be provided by anyone. As a result, finding a qualified counselor can be challenging.
Lack of Support:
Despite the growing recognition of the importance of counseling and guidance in the educational setting, the provision of these services is still met with a sense of neglect.
In addition to a lack of funds and resources, there is also a time shortfall. There doesn’t appear to be room in school schedules for counseling and guidance.
Neglect from Parents:
For guidance and counseling to be effective, everyone—the school, the teachers, the parents, and the students themselves—must support it. However, the implementation of these services may be hindered by the fact that many parents may not give guidance and counseling sufficient consideration and importance.
An attitude is defined as a more or less stable collection of predispositions to an opinion, interest, or goal that include anticipation of a particular experience and preparedness to respond appropriately.
Experience or upbringing are frequently the sources of attitudes. They can have a big impact on people’s behavior and how they act in different situations. Attitudes have a long lifespan, but they can also change.
In psychology, attitude is a psychological construct that describes a person’s mental and emotional make-up, their approach to something, or their personal viewpoint on it. Their thoughts, outlook, and feelings are all a part of their attitude.
Attitudes are intricate and developed via experience in life. An individual’s attitude is their predetermined state of mind in relation to a value. It is triggered by how they respond to themselves, other people, places, things, or events (the attitude object), which then affects how they think and act.
According to Michael Hogg, an attitude is a negative or positive evaluation of an object which influences human behavior towards that object. It is a learned predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner towards people, an object, an idea, or a situation (Martin Fishbein).
A person’s enduring favorable or unfavorable cognitive evaluations, feelings, and action tendencies toward an object or idea are referred to as their attitude. Religion, politics, clothing, music, and food are just a few of the subjects that influence people’s attitudes.
An individual’s attitudes develop into a consistent pattern, and changing one may necessitate a difficult adjustment on the part of many others. As a result, rather than attempting to alter people’s perspectives, a business would be wise to adapt its product to existing attitudes.
- : Positive or negative attitudes that an individual develops as a result of family influence are extremely potent and difficult to reverse.
What Are the Vices Inherent Among Students In Secondary School?
A vice is a behavior, habit, or practice that is generally regarded as immoral, sinful, criminal, rude, taboo, depraved, degrading, deviant, or perverted in the society that it is associated with. Vice can also mean a flaw, a bad habit, an infirmity, a negative character trait, or a defect in less common usage.
More often than not, vices are connected to a mistake in a person’s character or temperament rather than their morality. Some of the vices seen among school students include.
Although not all forms of anger are examples of vice, those that result in hatred, a deep-seated desire for retribution, or extreme resentment toward others are examples of vice.
Excessive pride can lead to arrogance, despite the fact that people should be proud of their work and accomplishments. Arrogant people have a tendency to have a higher sense of self-worth, which leads them to believe that they are superior to other people.
A person who acts in a way that is characterized by envy is someone who wants what other people have, or even what they think other people have, even if they don’t actually have it. Envious people feel slighted and jealous when they believe that others have gained something that they feel is lacking in their own lives, rather than being happy for the accomplishments of others.
The term “gluttony” refers to the habit of eating or drinking in excess. This term does not refer to the occasional act of eating too much, but rather to a pattern of eating too much. Gluttony can also include regularly drinking too much alcohol to the point of being extremely drunk or even passing out.
A strong desire to satisfy a desire can be described as lust. Lust is more than just feeling physically attracted to another person; it’s also a strong sexual need, which is the term most commonly used to describe it. It is more extreme and centered on oneself, with a greater drive to satisfy one’s own needs and desires without considering how it will affect other people.
Sloth or laziness
Inactivity and a waste of time and other resources. Laziness is stigmatized because it forces others to put in more effort; Additionally, no useful work will be done.
What is Curriculum?
A curriculum is a planned and systematic collection of competencies—that is, values-based knowledge, skills, and attitudes—that students should acquire through organized learning experiences in both formal and informal settings (See: the various meanings of curriculums).
Tolerance and respect, constructive management of diversity, peaceful conflict management, promotion and respect for human rights, gender equality, justice, and inclusiveness are all important social attitudes and skills that are developed through a good curriculum.
At the same time, the curriculum helps students learn how to think critically and acquire relevant knowledge that they can use in their studies, daily lives, and careers. In addition, the curriculum is increasingly being called upon to aid the learner’s personal development by boosting their self-esteem, confidence, motivation, and goals.
The entirety of student experiences that take place during the educational process is what is generally referred to as a curriculum. The phrase frequently alludes explicitly to a planned order of instruction or a perspective on student experiences in light of the teacher’s or school’s instructional objectives.
The planned interaction of students with instructional content, materials, resources, and mechanisms for assessing the achievement of educational goals may be included in a curriculum. The categories of the curriculum are explicit, implicit (including hidden), excluded, and extracurricular.
Frequently, a guide for teachers to teach content and skills is included in a curriculum. While some curricula serve as general road maps, others are quite in-depth and provide instructions for day-to-day learning.
A curriculum can be difficult to create, especially when expectations are so varied. It is essential, regardless of the circumstance, to begin with, a broad topic and expand on it with each step.
Determine the purpose of the curriculum
Teachers ought to have a concise list of purposes and objectives regarding what they want to accomplish before sitting down to write the course curriculum. The goal and subject matter of your curriculum ought to be distinct. The subject matter ought to be appropriate for the students’ ages as well as the setting in which the curriculum will be taught.
Find out what the needs of the students are
Writing a curriculum does not mean creating perfect lesson plans with objectives that students might not be able to achieve. Instead, it’s more about getting a handle on the issues that need to be fixed and the potential enhancements that students anticipate. Teachers can tailor the objectives and, more specifically, the potential subjects that will assist in achieving them by comprehending these fundamental requirements.
Create a basic framework with potential topics and a timeline for in-depth study
Once you have a clear idea of the curriculum’s purpose and a list of learning objectives, the next step is to outline potential topics and a timeline for in-depth study. The two things you need to think about are how frequently you will see the students and how long it takes for them to understand what you teach them.
Curate your curriculum’s content
You must now organize the content of your curriculum into subject schemes. Look over the study plans first, then carefully choose what, when, and why you will teach. Determine which concepts and subject areas will be covered in your curriculum and how they relate to other subjects.
Create a variety of assessments for your lessons
Teachers can use the following four types of assessments with their students: diagnostic, interim, formative, and summative. The purpose of diagnostic assessments is to help teachers assess each student’s level of classroom engagement and comprehension.
Teachers value diagnostic assessments because they measure students’ prior knowledge of a subject. Teachers can adjust unit planning or identify areas that need improvement using this information. Mind maps, classroom discussions, and short quizzes are all examples of this kind of assessment.
Formative assessments test students’ comprehension of teacher-led lessons and serve as practice for students. They are also important to teachers because they can help them plan their next lesson.
An interim assessment is a test given at various points throughout the school year to assess students’ comprehension of the material and direct future instruction. At the end of a semester or course, summative assessment is used to evaluate student learning.
Determine materials and resources to be included in the curriculum
If you are teaching an advanced course in which students must first read up on the material and have a general understanding of it before entering the class, this step is highly recommended.
Textual materials, online resources, data, and the teacher guides and manuals needed for these lessons are all examples of potential resources. It is up to you to decide which resources will help your students grow and develop.
Compile course content, materials, and resources
Create a curriculum that includes more than just a bulleted list of lessons. Collect course content, materials, and resources. Content creation, video recording, file uploading, quiz creation, and other tasks are all required. Resources that are haphazard or of low quality should not detract from your curriculum. Not only will inadequate resources reduce the impact of your curriculum, but they may also lead to confusion and even misinformation. If you want children’s education to be factually accurate and ambitious, it is essential to scout out the highest quality resources.
Gather feedback from a variety of sources
You should combine everything you’ve done thus far into a well-organized curriculum. It is recommended that you seek advice and feedback from seasoned educators as well as former students before implementing this curriculum in a class.
Evaluate and review to determine what is working well and what needs to be improved
You now have a curriculum in place. The next step is to regularly evaluate how it affects teaching and learning and make any necessary adjustments to improve it further.
It is customary for students in secondary schools to choose a career early. This will help them know the relevant subjects they will concentrate on and work towards their life goals.
In recent times, many students are confused and this leads them to make wrong choices. The cause of this menace is the absence of guidance and counselors in our secondary schools.
This article discussed the meaning of a counselor as well as how to develop a good curriculum.
What do you have to say concerning this concept? Are there notable counselors in your school, or children’s schools? What solutions can you suggest to move education forward in our country? For your questions and suggestions, kindly use the comment box below.
 Wiles, Jon (2008). Leading Curriculum Development. p. 2
 Adams, Kathy L.; Adams, Dale E. (2003). Urban Education: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. pp. 31–32.