Educational psychology is a concept that helps teachers understand their learners so they can help them effectively.
It is a concept that encompasses the understanding of the cognitive, developmental, aptitude, and interests of learners. It can help a teacher understand efficiently the learning process of a child.
In this article, we shall be covering basic concepts in educational psychology and how it helps the learning process of children.
Table of Contents
What Is the Subject Matter of Educational Psychology?
The subject matter of educational psychology revolves around the learner. It is the learner who needs to be studied well at all stages of development. Educational Psychology, thus, provides knowledge by which we can understand our learners.
It aids in our comprehension of the learners’ developmental traits, individual variances in intelligence, capacity for adjustment, and personality.
Educational psychology also looks into learners’ thought processes, attitudes, aptitudes, interests, creativity, and self-concept.
Therefore, educational psychology encompasses and is concerned with understanding learners and equipping them with the resources they require to learn.
Educational psychology is the study of how people learn, as well as individual learning differences and instructional processes. It looks at how the learning process is affected by cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and social factors. This understanding of how people learn is used by educational psychologists to create instructional strategies and assist students in succeeding in school.
The early childhood and adolescent learning processes are the primary focus of this subfield of psychology. However, it also investigates the social, emotional, and cognitive processes involved in learning across the lifespan.
The field of educational psychology is devoted to the study and enhancement of human learning across all stages of life and in any setting.
Schools are just one example, but there are also workplaces, organized sports, government agencies, retirement communities, and other places where people are learning and teach.
The importance of educational psychology lies in its emphasis on comprehending and enhancing the essential capacity of humans to learn.
The study of how people learn, including teaching strategies, learning processes, and individual learning characteristics, is known as educational psychology. It investigates the influences of cognition, behavior, emotion, and society on learning. This comprehension of how people learn is used by educational psychologists to create instructional strategies and support student’s academic success.
Adult educational challenges are addressed by adult psychology. The scientific aspect of an individual’s growth inside educational settings is called adult education psychology. Adult education should continue when they leave school and should last the rest of their lives.
For people taking psychology in adult education courses and those with an interest in the psychology of adult development, adult educational psychology is helpful. Teachers in higher education, instructors in technical and further education, staff development and human resource professionals, as well as educators in the community, can all benefit directly from it.
It offers a thorough introduction to educational psychology from an adult perspective and is the first significant text of its kind. Human development, social psychology, social learning, emotion, motivation, interest, intelligence, cognition, retention, and learning are just a few of the core subjects it covers.
Child psychology is the study of a child’s development from conception to adolescence. It is one of the many subfields of psychology. It focuses on the mind and behavior of children from prenatal development through adolescence. In addition to the physical growth of children, mental, emotional, and social development are all aspects of child psychology.
A kid therapist is a specialist in youth improvement who works with youngsters and teenagers to analyze and assist with settling issues that cause profound or conduct issues. The psychology of children is important because it can help us learn more about how kids work and how to help them become well-rounded people. As a result, it helps teachers and parents better understand and assist the children in their care.
The study of children’s psychological processes, also known as child development, focuses on how these processes differ from those of adults, how they develop from birth through adolescence, and how and why they differ from one child to another. The field of developmental psychology sometimes includes the subjects of childhood, adulthood, and aging.
What factors affect the learning process of children in nursery schools?
All of the internal and external agents that influence a child’s potential in a positive or negative way are factors that influence their learning. They affect academic achievement.
There are four socio-educational factors that affect learning: the application of study methods, intellectual abilities, prior knowledge, and motivation.
These aspects ought to be promoted, first within the family unit and then at school.
It should be understood that children’s learning relies on motivation. It is regarded as the factor that empowers an individual to make a decision and carry it out (in this instance: keep your interest in learning high).
- These things have to do with where the child grows up and lives. It is believed that their learning can be affected by everything around them. Skills can be developed based on a child’s habits thanks to the environment.
- : Each child has distinct characteristics that make him or her a special human being. In that regard, it is important to understand how far they can be demanded given their skills, aptitudes, and capacities. Parents, representatives, and teachers must be aware of each child’s limitations and potential.
- This aspect is about how parents and representatives raise their children. Ideally, the principles and study routines. In order to make learning more enjoyable in the future, the format will differ for each person.
- : The term “hereditary factors” refers to conditions that are present at birth that prevents a child from fully developing their intellectual capacities.
- : In addition to affecting children’s physical and psychological well-being, violence against children has an impact on learning. The child experiences feelings of fear, vengeance, and rage as a result of this act, and he or she stops thinking about school.
Why are teaching aids very important in teaching nursery pupils?
The use of teaching aids is essential in nursery settings. Among the many advantages of teaching aids are their ability to assist pupils to develop their reading abilities, illustrate or reinforce a skill or concept, differentiate training, as well as reduce anxiety or boredom by presenting information in a fresh and engaging way.
Since there are no restrictions on the kind of teaching aids that can be used to enhance a lesson, they also stimulate the pupil’s other senses.
- Teaching aids are helps teachers to close the reading gap and improve the reading comprehension skills of pupils.
- When teachers need to reinforce a skill or concept, teaching aids prove to be a powerful addition. They not only give pupils more time to practice, but they also present the information in a different way, giving pupils a new way to interact with it.
- Using visual aids gives pupils a new perspective on the topic and provides them with visual stimulation.
- The learning environment is made more interesting and interesting by teaching aids.
- Exciting presentations about a particular topic keep pupil’s attention rather than requiring them to concentrate on lengthy teachings.
- A teaching aid makes class examples come to life to the pupils and, as a result, clears up any confusion.
Moral advancement in youth might be viewed as one of the focal parts of socialization. Based on social and cultural norms, it is a process by which children learn to distinguish between right and wrong. Children’s morals are taught in large part by their parents and teachers.
The capacity to discern between right and wrong in one’s intentions, thoughts, actions, and behavior is morality. The primary objective of parenting is to impart this idea to children. The concepts of morality that a child acquires from birth through adulthood are referred to as moral development.
Stage 1: Infancy
Children’s moral development begins in infancy. Other than having a sense of rightness or wrongness as those feelings apply to himself, an infant cannot moralize. A baby is brought into the world expecting to be cared for for the next nine months in the womb. Baby concludes that hunger is incorrect despite never being hungry; It aches. Baby, who has never been left alone, finds it wrong to be alone; It scares me. Baby is always in touch and knows that being unresponsive is wrong. It feels right to be held in arms and responded to! Baby develops a sense of rightness that becomes her “norm,” and she believes she is the center of the universe.
Stage 2: Toddlers (ages 2 to 3 years old)
At this age, your child understands that other people also have rights and needs. He hasn’t yet figured out the difference between right and wrong, though. A toddler between the ages of two and three may exhibit moral and empathy-based guilt. The toddler learns that obedience is expected based on the parents’ actions.
Stage 3: Preschoolers: (ages 3 – 5)
Your child learns to internalize family values at this age. Rules and norms become important for your child as well because they are necessary for maintaining discipline in the family.
Your child anticipates that parents or other elders will take charge. They are aware of the distinction between “child” and “adult” and anticipate that maturity will be directed toward them. The child understands that what he or she does has repercussions: “If I do this, this will happen.”
The child connects with his parents and exhibits good behavior. Until he is not caught, the disconnected child will do whatever he wants.
Stage 4: Kids (Ages 7 – 10)
Children between the ages of seven and ten begin to question the infallibility of their parents and teachers. It’s possible that those in charge do not know everything. They hold the most respect for mature adults who are unbiased and able to exercise authority. Authority isn’t threatening to the youngster yet is important for social living.
They hold that children ought to follow their parents’ orders. Additionally, school-age children believe that they should be corrected if they break a rule. Some children are more likely to tattle due to this strong sense of “should do” and “should not do.”
Stage 5: Teens aged 11 to 16:
Children begin to develop their own moral principles as they approach adulthood, as well as question and evaluate the ones that their parents instill in them. Your adolescent will see rules as a set of social guidelines that benefit everyone, broadening his moral perspective.
While they respect rules, they also negotiate. As they improve their abstract reasoning skills, they develop an interest in what is beneficial to society as a whole. Your teen will begin to realize that the actions he takes have an impact on those around him. Your teen may alter or change his morals and values in order to be accepted by peers.
What Are the Qualities of a Good Leader?
The following are the qualities of a good leader.
- : Honesty and virtue are valued by leaders. They are supported by people who share their vision.
- : Leaders are great influencers because they are self-motivating. Their followers are encouraged by them. They assist others in comprehending their roles within a broader context.
- : Leaders are excellent communicators. They are open with their team and share both their successes and failures.
- : Visionaries are at the top. They know exactly what they want and how to get it. Leaders can effectively convey their vision to their team by communicating well.
- : The status quo is challenged by leaders. As a result, they never lose hope. They also have unique approaches to problem-solving.
- : Hortense le Gentil, a leadership coach, is of the opinion that hard decisions should be made by leaders using their intuition. Especially, because intuition relies heavily on a person’s previous knowledge and life experiences, making it more useful in complicated situations.
- : A leader’s ability to empathize with others and feel their emotions will help them build a strong bond with their team. A leader will also be able to better address the issues, concerns, and aspirations of his team members with the assistance of these characteristics.
- : Even though a leader needs to have empathy, it’s not a good idea to be overly emotional when making a big business decision. As a result, an objective leader is essential.
- : A good leader must be able to think creatively and find business solutions to difficult issues. A leader should also be analytical and weigh the advantages and disadvantages before making a choice. An all-inclusive leadership training program can improve this quality.
- : Someone who is open to new concepts, possibilities, and perspectives is a good leader. Understanding that there is no right or wrong way to do things is essential to being a good leader. As a result, a successful leader is always prepared to listen, observe, and adapt. They also think outside the box, which inspires their teams to do the same. All of these aspects will be covered in depth when you enroll in a leadership program.
- : A successful leader is aware that implementing a business strategy requires time. They also hold the belief that success can be achieved through “continuous improvement and patience.”
- : Because leaders are familiar with the idea of “continuous improvement,” they are also aware that being adaptable will ensure their success. Nothing goes according to plan. Therefore, being adaptable and intuitive enables a manager to maintain his composure in complex circumstances.
What is the place of communication skills in education management?
The process of exchanging ideas, thoughts, opinions, knowledge, and data in such a way that the message is received and understood with clarity and purpose is called effective communication. The sender and the receiver are content when we communicate effectively.
In education management, communication is important to both teachers and students.
- Communication and its composition are both integral to a foundational educational experience.
- The significance of providing students with proper communication instruction begins in the formative years.
- Throughout their early education, students are required to develop speaking and listening skills in accordance with the Common Core standards. This is to lay a central comprehension to plan understudies for school and their future professions.
- Good communication skills enable teachers to effectively assess the effectiveness of learning on students. The most efficient method for assessing a communication course’s effectiveness is to measure how students have progressed over time. A digital media platform that tracks students’ progress over time is used to measure progress.
- Through good communication, students are able to understand their assignments when it is communicated and what is expected of them.
- With good communication skills, student and teacher evaluation is made simple across school borders and curriculum assessment.
- Good communication skills enable the principal, teachers, as well as students to use the right communication medium to divulge the right information at the right time.
Max Weber, a German sociologist, and political economist developed what is now referred to as bureaucracy as a theory to manage companies rationally and effectively. According to Weber, bureaucracies not only boost productivity and guarantee equality in the private sector but also in the public sector, which includes governmental institutions, educational institutions, and other businesses.
Although bureaucracy is a practical technique for organizing education, it contains intrinsic flaws that indiscriminately perpetuate both desired and undesirable societal problems.
A bureaucracy is a large, formal secondary organization with clear rules, a hierarchy of authority, and impersonal interactions among its members.
Theoretically, bureaucracies are meritocracies that boost productivity, guarantee equality of opportunity, and ensure efficiency. In fact, some people benefit from social and structural advantages, such as a dominant race, language, or culture, to which others may not have access.
The Industrial Revolution laid the groundwork for the current educational system. Standardization, specialization, and hierarchy came to define the school environment. It is difficult to bring about appropriate and immediate change in schools when it is required by society’s shifting needs.
Nonetheless, reorganizing bureaucracy is a necessary step toward resolving today’s pressing school issues. Issues in the present educational systems have established the innate meaning of organization. The extreme centralization of schools is one example of this kind of issue.
A centralized school system is run by professional administrators. The bureaucracy is under their control. They are authorized to oversee education. The administrators favor a centralized educational system for these reasons. A system like this keeps the administrators in charge.
However, these people do not make the effort to live within their schools’ communities. They are not a part of community life on a daily basis. The student’s education suffers as a result of this. As a result, the convergence of education and education would greatly benefit from a methodical approach to decentralization.
The staff of a decentralized school district would be made up of members of the community. These chairmen would incorporate the director. The community’s teaching staff would be warm and welcoming to the student. In school, the student would feel “at home.” The school would no longer be a place where people could talk about nothing personal. In a decentralized system, the quality of teachers would remain constant.
Education Law is part of the law of Nigeria that purposefully governs educational institutions operating within her borders.
Because the average Nigerian teacher does not consider the notion of the education law to be significant for his or her duties as a teacher, an administrator, or for the welfare of the pupils, it is not widely accepted.
A state’s, a city’s, an area’s, or a nation’s education legislation is the section of the law that deals specifically with the administration of educational institutions such as public and private primary and secondary schools, and tertiary and non-tertiary educational institutions.
It is crucial to note that in order to comprehend education legislation, one needs to look at a number of pertinent problems, such as;
- The institution’s financing sources
- Staff requirements for teachers and support staff
- Requirements for hiring teaching and non-teaching employees
- Hiring and firing of teaching personnel as well as non-teaching staff
- Staff training and retraining
- Staff roles and responsibilities, including those of students
- Meetings, quorums, and punishment
To administer the education law, the principal and teachers in different schools, public and private, should know the various sources and content of the law. For example, the constitutional source of education law states:
- Government shall direct its policy toward ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels.
- Government shall promote science and technology
- Government shall strive to eradicate illiteracy and to this end, government shall as and when practicable provide:
- Free, compulsory, and universal primary education.
- Free secondary education.
- Free university education and
- Free adult literacy program.
In addition to the constitutional sources, there are federal and state statutes, case laws decided by courts, etc. With the knowledge of education law, both public and private schools can implement things like.
- Buying properties for the purpose of erecting an academic structure.
- Recruiting teachers and school administrators. All necessary skills and terms should be carefully considered.
- Seeking funding for the school for various reasons. Whether loans, grants, or donations, the laws guiding such funding must be considered.
How Would You Apply a Selected Motivational Theory in A School Setting?
We can accomplish a specific objective thanks to motivation. It is a crucial component of learning since it is crucial to both teaching and learning. It makes lessons more enjoyable for kids in the classroom, which improves learning. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, incentive theory, and other motivational theories can all be used in the classroom.
The incentive theory is predicated on the idea that every action has a favorable outcome, sometimes known as a reward. This paradigm, in which a student is guaranteed some kind of reward if they work hard and do well, can drive students into the classroom. According to this belief, any achievement or success should be followed with some sort of incentive (Beck, 2008).
Micro-teaching is a teacher training and faculty development strategy in which the teacher analyzes a recording of a teaching session in order to receive constructive feedback from peers and/or students on what worked and how to improve their teaching technique.
Dwight W. Allen created micro-teaching at Stanford University in 1963, and it has since been applied to train teachers across many subject areas.
When a teacher gives feedback to their students and colleagues after seeing the recording of their own lesson, this is known as micro-teaching.
Micro-teaching is a unique teaching practice model or teaching development technique. There are numerous behaviors that take place in this educational context, including the application of methods, the use of media, learning guides, motivation, classroom management, assessment, analysis, and so forth.
Fundamental principles of micro-teaching:
To broaden its impact on teachers’ overall development, microteaching is based on a set of fundamentals.
One skill at a time:
In microteaching, each skill is worked on individually. Particular skills are taught until they are mastered. After mastering one skill, another one is targeted. As a result, microteaching concentrates on one skill at a time.
The trainees have more freedom and ease when the content is limited. As a result, limited content is the foundation of micro-teaching. Since teachers are expected to prepare their lessons around the given content, it will be easier for them to teach.
Practice makes perfect:
Practice is required to master skills. The micro-teaching program not only focuses on one skill at a time but also gives students the chance to practice those skills. A lot of practice can help you develop your teaching skills and boost your self-confidence.
Any concept relies heavily on experiments. Numerous experiments are carried out in microteaching to evaluate teachers’ abilities.
Microteaching uses students as teachers and supervisors. The teacher-student and supervisors provide feedback at the conclusion of each session. After the lesson plan is finished, this feedback is given right away. As a result, it aids in overcoming its shortcomings.
Possibilities for self-evaluation:
Every task relies heavily on evaluation. In micro-teaching, supervisors administer multiple tests, providing numerous opportunities for error analysis. Evaluation provides an opportunity to comprehend and rectify the error. There is a session in this program where shortcomings and solutions are discussed. As a result, achieving overall improvement becomes easier.
Skills development is a slow and ongoing process. One should always strive for improvement, even after mastering a previous skill. Making consistent efforts makes overall development simpler.
The knowledge of educational psychology will make you a better teacher. It is also a great and effective way to impart relevant knowledge to learners. This article discussed education psychology in addition to microteaching. You can now use the comment box to give us your feedback.
 Beck, R. C. (2008). Motivation: theories and principles. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.