What is Industrial age?
Industrial Age is a historical period that began in 1760 and ended around 1840. It was a period when their was massive replacement of hand tools by power-driven machines. During this period also, civilization shifted from agrarian to industrial and urbanization. This period is synonymous to the industrial revolution.
This period gave birth to great thinkers and inventors whose inventions ushered in the modern civilization. The Industrial age or industrial revolution is a period between the late 17th century (1760) and the 19th century.
This period marked the transformation from an agrarian, subsistence, and human society into industrial and urban society. This period experienced more modernization process, increased social change, and economic development. There were massive technological innovations during this era.
During this period, production processes changed from manual methods to the use of the machine. There were 3 key industrial developments that led to the industrialization of America and the world, namely;
- Expanded transportation system
- The effective harnessing of electricity, and
- Advances in industrial processes
Key technologies and Inventions of the Industrial Age
|James Watt||First reliable Steam Engine||1775|
|Eli Whitney||Cotton Gin, Interchangeable parts for muskets||1793, 1798|
|Robert Fulton||Regular Steamboat service on the Hudson River||1807|
|Samuel F. B. Morse||Telegraph||1836|
|Elias Howe||Sewing Machine||1844|
|Isaac Singer||Improves and markets Howe’s Sewing Machine||1851|
|Cyrus Field||Transatlantic Cable||1866|
|Alexander Graham Bell||Telephone||1876|
|Thomas Edison||The phonograph, Incandescent Light Bulb||1877, 1879|
|Nikola Tesla||Induction Electric Motor||1888|
|Rudolf Diesel||Diesel Engine||1892|
|Orville and Wilbur Wright||First Airplane||1903|
|Henry Ford||Model T Ford, Assembly Line||1908, 1913|
Source: Top 10 Significant Industrial Revolution Inventors (about.com)
Social and Economic Effects of Industrial Age
- It led to exploitation of workers and consequently, low standard of living
- It led to rapid urbanization
- It led to a change in family structure as adults tend to migrate to places where there are jobs.
- There was rapid population growth during the period
- Child labor became more visible as a result of population growth. There was limited opportunity for education, and children were expected to work.
- Many craft and skilled workers lost their jobs as they could not compete with machines.
Though industries and machines are important part of production in the world today. Another important factor was factored in at late 1950s. This crucial factor of production, also known as digital revolution is called electronic age.
The electronic age is also known as the information age or the digital age. It began around the 1970s and continued till the present day. This is a period of transition from traditional industry to an economy based on information computerization.
- The information age creates a knowledge-based society.
- There is effective use of information during this era.
- This era is marked with efficiency in manufacturing productivity.
- Similarly, there is efficiency in service delivery.
These were made possible through advances in computer microprocessor, inventions of personal computers, the internet, and the World Wide Web.
Key Technologies of the Electronic Age
Some notable technology and innovations that facilitated the information age include:
|1971||Home video game consoles, widespread public application||1972 1980s|
|Personal computer widespread public application||1974 1980s||Laptop widespread public application||1980s 1990s|
|World Wide Web widespread public application||1989 1990s||Online gaming communities widespread public application||1990s 2000s|
|Cellular phones widespread public application||1984 1990s -2000s||Digital Camera and Webcams Mainstreamed||1980s 2000s|
|GPS mainstreamed||2000s||Satellite radio – circa||2001|
|Broadband mainstreamed||2000s & 2010s||Smartphones widespread public application||2000s 2010s|
|Digital Television widespread public application Digital television transition||1990s 2000s 2006||Tablet PCs Mainstream||1990s 2010s|
Source: Information age (wikipedia.com)
Benefits of the Electronic Age
- The electronic age brough with it greater interdependence of people and nations
- It has also made communication easier and faster
- It has made information easily available to people and at cheaper rate
- The information age brought about globalization and outsourcing which improves business efficiency.
- Information age has also contributed to improved productivity and business efficiency.